Meat and Poultry Processing

By: Rabbi Yaakov Luban

A. Shechita:
The Torah requires that meat and poultry be slaughtered in a prescribed manner known as shechita. The trachea and esophagus of the animal are severed with a special razor-sharp, perfectly smooth blade, causing instantaneous death with no pain to the animal. Only a trained kosher slaughterer (shochet), whose piety and expertise have been attested to by rabbinic authorities, is qualified to slaughter an animal for kosher consumption.
B. Bedika:
After the animal has been properly slaughtered, a trained inspector (bodek) inspects the internal organs for any physiological abnormalities that may render the animal non-kosher (treif). The lungs, in particular, must be examined in order to determine that there are no adhesions (sirchot), which may be indicative of a puncture in the lungs. If an adhesion is found, the bodek must further examine it carefully to determine its kashrus status. It should be noted that in addition to fulfilling the requirements of halacha (Jewish law), the bedika of internal organs insures a standard of quality that exceeds government requirements.
C. Glatt Kosher:
Though not all adhesions render an animal non-kosher, some Jewish
communities or individuals only eat meat of an animal that has been found to be free of all adhesions on its lungs. “Glatt” literally means “smooth”, indicating that the meat comes from an animal whose lungs have been found to be free of all adhesions. Recently, the term “glatt kosher” is increasingly used more broadly as a generic phrase, implying that the product is kosher without question.
D. Nikkur:
In some kosher animal species, many blood vessels, nerves and lobes of fat are forbidden and must be removed. There are special cutting procedures for beef, veal and lamb known as “Nikkur” (Hebrew word for “excising” ), which must be performed by a specially trained individual.
E. Koshering:
The Torah forbids the consumption of the blood of an animal. The two Torah accepted methods of extracting blood from meat, a process referred to as “koshering”, are either salting or broiling.
Meat should not be placed in warm water before it has been “koshered”. Once meat is cooked prior to koshering, it cannot be made kosher.
1. Salting:
The meat must first be soaked for a half hour in cool (not ice) water in a utensil designated only for that purpose. After allowing for excess water to drip off the meat, the meat is thoroughly salted so that the entire surface is covered with a thin layer of salt. Only coarse salt should be used. Both sides of meat and poultry must be salted. All inside loose sections of poultry must be removed before the koshering process begins. Each part must be soaked and salted individually.
If the meat or poultry was sliced during the salting process, the newly exposed surfaces of the cut must now be soaked for a half hour and salted as well.
The salted meat is left for an hour on an inclined or perforated surface to allow
the blood to flow down freely. The cavity of the poultry should be placed open, in a downward direction.
After the salting, the meat must be thoroughly soaked, and then thoroughly washed to remove all of the applied salt.
According to kosher law, meat must be koshered within 72 hours after slaughter so as not to allow the blood to congeal. If meat has been thoroughly soaked prior to the 72 hours limit, an additional seventy-two hours time stay is granted to complete the first step of the salting process.
2. Broiling:
An alternate means of “koshering” meat is through broiling. Liver may only be koshered through broiling, because of the preponderance of blood in it.
Both the liver and meat must first be thoroughly washed to remove all surface blood. They are then salted slightly on all sides. Subsequently, they are broiled specifically on a designated liver-broiling perforated grate over an open fire, which draws out the internal blood. When koshering liver, slits must be made in the liver prior to broiling.
The meat or liver must be broiled on both sides until the outer surface appears to be dry and brown. After broiling, the meat or the liver is rinsed off.
F. The Kosher Butcher:
Years ago, salting of meat and poultry was performed in the home of the consumer. More recently, the kosher butcher performed salting in the butcher shop. Today, the entire process of slaughtering, bedika, nikkur and salting has shifted to the slaughterhouse. This allows for uniform consistency of high standards. Nonetheless, the kosher butcher plays a critical role in distributing the product. The butcher must be a person of integrity and the store should be under reliable Rabbinic supervision.
G. Packaging:
From the time of slaughter, kosher meat and poultry must be properly supervised until it reaches the consumer. A metal tag called a plumba, bearing the kosher symbol is often clamped on the meat or fowl to serve as an identifying seal of supervision. Alternatively, the meat or fowl is packed in tamperproof packaging with the kosher logo prominently displayed.
H. Cost:
Because kosher meat and poultry have many processing requirements (shechita, bedika nikkur and salting), which must be performed by specially trained individuals, the labor costs associated with kosher meat and poultry are significantly greater. This accounts for the higher cost of kosher meat and poultry.


Kosher and Non-Kosher Meat, Poultry, and Fish

By: Rabbi Yaakov Luban

A. Meat:
The Torah states that kosher mammals are those which chew their cud (ruminants) and are cloven-hoofed. The following animal species are among those considered to be Kosher: Addax, Antelope, Bison, Cow, Deer, Gazelle, Giraffe, Goat, Ibex and Sheep. In addition, meat and poultry require special preparation, which will be discussed below.
B. Poultry:
The Torah does not enumerate specific characteristics to distinguish permitted and forbidden birds. Instead, it enumerates 24 forbidden species of fowl, while all other birds are considered to be kosher. Nonetheless, for various reasons, in practice we eat only those birds which have an established tradition that the species is kosher.
In the United States, the only poultry accepted by mainstream kashrus organizations as kosher are chicken, turkey, duck and goose.
C. Fish:
The Torah establishes two criteria to determine what are kosher fish. The fish must have fins and scales. The scales must be easily removable without damaging the skin. [Generally, scales on kosher fish are either thin, rounded and smooth-edged (cycloid) or narrow segments that are similar to teeth of a comb (ctenoid)]. All shellfish are prohibited. Unlike meat and poultry, fish requires no special preparation. Nonetheless, the fish scales must be visible to the consumer in order to establish the kosher status of the fish. Therefore, filleted or ground fish should not be purchased unless properly supervised, or the fillet has a skin tab with scales attached to the flesh. Furthermore, purchasing fish in a non-kosher fish store is problematic, even if the scales are intact, because the knives and tables are not kosher, and Rabbinic guidance should be sought.
Rabbinic law prohibits consumption of fish and meat together.
Processed and smoked fish products require reliable rabbinic supervision, as do all processed foods.


Green tea(Nihoncha)

In tea that to be produced in Japan, almost all are these green tea.
Notes when Kosher is attested.
1) Thoroughness in removal of harmful insect. (It is an unannounced audit in the tea plant. )
2) External, chemical analysis of mite and harmful insect.
3) Examination by watching Ruby.
4) Follow-up check from field of tea to process house.
5) Package material, process, and instruction of method of method of evading contamination.
6) Other products in tea factory

This manufacturing method from which the process "Steaming" is done Mite worldwide during tea manufacture is an industrial method not seen in countries other than Japan.

The tea manufacture of green tea of Japan is "No fermentation tea" in steaming when plucking is done keeping freshness that stops working of the stop oxidative enzyme as for fermentation.

Trees of tea were originally kinds, and various kinds arose though there was delicious tea in many parts of the world in what month long.
It was divided into two modalities roughly at present, and the long tract of years was improved and the following kinds were made up making up of Japanese tea in a Chinese kind (Variety sinensis) it.

Representative kind of Yabukita

Cultivation method, plucking time, by the difference in the manufacturing process, Japan tea, has been producing tea of various types use this tea leaves.
The roughly divided into the type of Japanese tea, there are brown and brown rice tea stem tea bud tea powder tea fiddle most Sencha Gyokuro coarse tea, green tea is to use in the tea ceremony.

It explains the tea manufacture process.

The production process is divided into sized of two Kina process.
Process of crude tea (green tea)
1) Plucking
2) The stop the fermentation of steamed immediately after plucking. The quality of tea is greatly controlled.
3) Cooling.
4) It massages while adjusting the temperature many times, and the dewatering is repeated.
5) About 75% decreases from the weight of the dewatering and the first leaf. (100KG becomes 25KG. )
6) Storing

Finishing process (It is sold through this process).
The finishing method, there are two wide difference range is broadly in Japanese tea manufacturing company, either at the beginning the drying process, is divided not vibration, there are two ways of how to dry after the shaping.
1) Dewatering
2) Divide it has vibration
3) Plastic operation (cutting)
4) Packing

Process of crude tea of powdered green tea
(Do not massage it. )
1) It covers so that the light of the sun should not try the entire Chanoki before doing Plucking. (Pick it only once a year. )
2) The steaming fermentation after plucking is immediately stopped.
3) It is dried because of the hot wind.
4) The leaf and the stalk are divided.
5) Re-dewatering.
6) Storing

Finishing process of powdered green tea.

1) Divide it has vibration
2) Plastic operation (cutting)
3) Stone mill
4) Packing

Place of production of Japan of the main tea
Shizuoka Prefecture Fuji Numazu Ihara head temple Makinohara Kawane Kakegawa Tenryu
Kagoshima Prefecture Tanegashima Oura Chiran Ei (Ei) wan morning moon Takarabe
Mie Prefecture Yokkaichi Suzuka Kameyama Iinan Watarai
Kyoto Uji Ujitawara Wazuka Yamagusuku
Fukuoka Prefecture Yame Hoshino

Element and effect of Japanese tea
Effect of catechin
1) A lot of catechin is contained in Japanese tea. Only "LDL cholesterol" called a bad character decreases to catechin of this Japanese tea, and it has an excellent characteristic of not influencing "High density lipoprotein-cholesterol" called a good guy.
2) When the active oxygen increases too much, man's body causes the trouble and the senility. In catechin of Japanese tea, there is a antioxidative effect by which the active oxygen is deleted.
Indispensable oxygen for living thing. Oxygen changes to stress and ultraviolet rays, intense active oxygen to play sports.The active oxygen promotes the senility. Therefore, devising it to take food that positively deletes the active oxygen, and to suppress the generation of the active oxygen as much as possible becomes the point of health.
Japanese tea especially has a greatly high effect compared with the extraction element of other foods and healthy tea though a lot of food that deletes the active oxygen exists.
3) When the vitamin E, the vitamin C, and the riboflavin, etc. are contained in Japanese tea, and the riboflavin is insufficient, the onset stripes contain the riboflavin of Japanese tea of about 1.4mg every 100g, and this amount is about 4 times parsley and the grass and the mulukhiya that cannot be thrown out as for the perleche and the inflammation tongue.
In the oolong tea and tea, it is almost lost during the production process.
3) A caffeinated amount in the beverage where caffeine is included is as follows in Japanese tea.
Green tea 26-30mg(per 150ml)
Tea 28-44mg(per 150ml)
Coffee 60-180mg(per 150ml)
Cola 15-24mg(per 150ml)

4) The folacin is contained in Japanese tea. The folacin is nourishment Moto who helps the plastic of the red blood corpuscle, and has the effect of suppressing the onset such as arteriosclerosis, the large bowel cancer, the dementias, and Alzheimer's diseases. The folacin about five times the amount of the grass and the parsley that cannot be thrown out is contained in Japanese tea, and the same level as the dry seaweed that the content of the folacin is especially high in food. Only a small amount is included in tea.

5) The β-carotene contained in Japanese tea is absorbed from the bowel, and changed into the vitamin A in the liver. The vitamin A hits about three times the carrot in nourishment Moto who helps the maintenance of the eyesight at nighttime.

5) The vitamin E contained in Japanese tea shows the antioxidative effect, and has working that defends the lipid in the inside of the body from the oxidation. The amount of the vitamin E included in the green tea is about twice or more about 32 times and cayenne peppers (red pepper) of the grass that cannot be thrown out, and the food material more than the green tea is hardly found by the content of the vitamin E.



he meaning of sake is a meaning of alcoholic drinks.

There is roughly separately three modality of The sake( Nihon shu), the shochu, and Awamori that appeared in Japan.
I will explain sake ( Nihon shu ) in that.

This explanation is an explanation from the standpoint of the Kosher attestation.

The raw material of sake chiefly ferments the rice , the rice malt, and water as a raw material, and the rest is supported by a lot of things such as yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and sake is brewed though it makes.

It uses to manufacture the sake for the alcohol and the dish used with the authentically brewed and refined sake according to the brewing company, and it doesn't exist if it takes care especially because there is the one to add the acidifier, the seasoning, the amino acid, and the saccharide, etc. Moreover, it is noted that there is a brewing company where it manufactures and sake uses filter and the dregs lowering medicine to keep transparent when it is the final, too.

We especially deliver keeping at the brewing factories other than the Kosher brewing alcohol and do not admit the brewing alcohol in that. It is a reason why a lot of sake cannot take the attestation of Kosher because of this condition.

Additionally, the condition because of becoming the Kosher sake was recorded in the following and it recorded in the following.

1)Confirmation of rice. (visit to place of production of material and confirmation of purchase farmer)

2) Storage method and acquisition method of water. The confirmation of the pump filter, especially the structure of the filter is confirmed, and water is analyzed.

3) Check all of the process by visiting the underlying of malted rice, the production company of seed malt.

4) Alcohols are confirmed with the brewing company (Include it for the disinfection of the equipment cleaning).

5) In all the brewing companies, it is conditioning as for the purchase only of the Kosher brewing alcohol.

6) Purchase history data of Kosher brewing alcohol and confirmation of receipt.

7) It is an oath of the legal liability confirmation in the Kosher contract to the person in charge of the factory manufacturing.

8) It is an oath of the legal liability confirmation in the Kosher contract to the representative in the brewing company.

9) Kosher is confirmed the visit to the seed malt producing company. Submitting of document.

10) The interdiction of carrying raw materials other than the permission of Rabbi and additives in the brewing company factory.

11) It visits and the certificate is submitted to the yeast producing company with the document.

12) Purchase from Kosher factory manufacturing of enzyme.

13) Kosher product usage of lactic acid.

14) The disclosure of all products, disclosing the process identification documentation and raw material information, and the rough sketch of the factory and books on the purchase are confirmed to the brewing company.

15) Obligation of prior meeting of new product production plan book.

16) Specification of cleaning temperature of bottle.

17) Guidance of cleaning method in factory

18) Condition of surprise examination of Rabbi.

A lot of conditions have been imposed by Rabbi besides the above-mentioned.

Overview of sake( Nihon shu )

Rice and water can be made a raw material as a basic way of making of sake( Nihon shu ) , rice be saccharified by malt, and glucose be done. Glucose becomes alcohol because of fermentation with yeast.

Being possible to do by the brewing method for these saccharifications and two actions of fermentation to progress in one tank and to generate high density alcohol is sake( Nihon shu ) .

It explains notes of Kosher while explaining the production process in order how sake is brewed.

1)The have an influence of rice on protein, fat, taste of the sake including vitamins, a fragrance, a color outward, and I let quality of the sake weaken, and control comes to one of cut collecting at the rate of 25~70% in it because there is the material that it is difficult. The name of articles changes at the removed rate. 
The thing of the removed rice is called Shin-Paku.

If the machine rises in temperature by the rub, this rice cleaning work becomes easy for rice to crack it, and does the rotating speed and the temperature spending from 6 hours to 72 hours .

2) Rinsed rice. In addition to the new water and transferred immediately immersed in white rice (shinseki) tank and let absorb water and immersed in water after rinse rice. Because the immersion time differs according to the modality, the character, and the use of rice, and has a big influence on the quality of sake, it becomes the work of the confirmation of the clock. In kosher, the supply method and the acquisition method of water are clarified.

3) The starch organization in the rice grain breaks because it steams rice that contains moisture because of steam, it becomes easy for Aspergillus to breed, and the sterilization of rice is held concurrently.
This work is very important, the subsequent steps, in order to give a significant impact on the quality of liquor and therefore, we will continue to work while assessing smell and temperature, luster.

4) It steams and the raised rice is cooled even at the temperature corresponding to each use for malt, for yeast mash, and for rice for brewing sake

5) Malt decomposes starch by the one bred from the surface of the steamed rice to the central portion by a kind of mold and has working that changes it into glucose. The underlying this malt seed malt is particularly important Kosher authentication, or not used to anything other than the examination of nutrients such as when you need to check how to manage mold or cultured in any way, and cultured does not.

6) It made from malted rice and glucose not only a source of nutrition (yeast) East, it will have a significant impact on quality of liquor as a flavor component of the liquor. Yeast (yeast) is added at this time and alcohol appears. The brewing company most, either use the brewing yeast Association was established in 1906 (Brewing society of japan), is used by culturing the yeast of the Association. Ruby is yeast that was able to be confirmed by confirming the nourishment used for the manufacturing method, the preservation technique, and culture to this yeast (Do not use it excluding yeast).

It is necessary to examine up the origin, the production process, and the material of this enzyme by being likely being likely to use the enzyme to do the alcoholic fermentation well according to the brewing company, and to visit the enzyme plant by Rabbi.

The lactic acid that can suppress breeding of a lot of saprophytic bacteria is necessary for the in-process of manufacturing sake. It is severely requested that only the Kosher attestation commodity be used and do not carry this lactic acid excluding the lactic acid that the attestation received to the site in the factory though there is a company that originally makes the lactic acid according to the brewing company, too.

The lactic acid takes an active part various enzymes of malt and the yeasts purely raised until alcohol strengthens and defends the generation processes such as a lot of amino acids, peptide, and the organic acids in the tank. It makes in the tank the world of malt and yeast.

It is kept in the tank from 10 to about 15℃ because of fermentation, and it will age in 14-20 days while variously changing the state of the bubble on the surface, and the alcohol concentration becomes 19% to 20% .

7) Sake in this tank is still white and turbid put in press and separates to a liquid part (sake) and a solid part (sake lees). Afterwards, sake is a kipper that precipitates the protein and the starch, etc. that transfer to other tanks, take, and do not cut spending time and removes dregs. The brewing company of many, there is a case to introduce bentonite when you take the cake, if you want to input is prompted for the use of pure bentonite here. Perplexing here is a thing that a lot of brewing companies are using the bentonite with the gelatin.

After it filters it further by filter, the sake that became transparent destroys residual enzymes to the warm water of about 65℃ through the tube of the metallic nature. And, it is a kipper in the tank because of the aging as for sleep during about half a year.

8) The bottling should follow the temperature of the cleaning method, the cleaning agent in Vinh, and the water used and the instructions of all Rabbi.


What is Kosher

By: Rabbi Yaakov Luban
The term kosher means "clean, fit or proper." Its origins can be traced back to dietary guidelines referenced in the Bible. These rituals were highly regarded and are still followed today, thousands of years later. The exacting attention to preparation and unmatched old world flavor explain why more than two-thirds of all kosher products are bought by non-Jewish consumers for their superior quality and excellent taste.
What are some of the laws governing kosher food?
1. Only healthy animals can be slaughtered for use in kosher foods. Kosher species must have split hooves and chew their cud; this includes cattle, sheep, goat and deer.
2. Only certain birds are considered kosher in the United States. Chicken, duck, goose and turkey.
3. Lobster lovers might be dismayed to find that for a fish to be kosher, it must have fins and easily removable scales. In most cases, scales must be present on the fish in order to be purchased by the consumer. There's more. If a fish monger isn't kosher, that means his cutting implements and machines aren't kosher either. If it is to be considered kosher food, it must be prepared with kosher equipment.
4. Fish and meat cannot be served together.
5. Milk and meat cannot be served together.
6. Processed food must be prepared in the presence of a rabbi.
7. Poultry and meat must be slaughtered under strict guidelines called "shechita." This means the animals are slaughtered without pain. Only those who are trained and qualified are allowed to slaughter kosher animals. Once the animal is no longer alive, another team of experts will examine the animal to be sure the animal is without illness, abnormalities or anything else that can be considered unsanitary. The lungs in particular must be pure. In addition, all blood and most fat must be removed. If defects are discovered, the meat is rejected.
Kosher inspection begins while the animal is still alive and continues until the finished product leaves the plant. This system operates under the diligent and watchful supervision of kosher inspectors, who stringently control the process from slaughter through shipping. The product is continually inspected throughout every step of the process.
8. Families who eat only kosher food must use two separate sets of utensils, pots, pans and dishes. One set is for poultry or meat, and another is set for everything else. In addition, these dishes and utensils can't be washed together. If a kitchen has two sinks, it is an ideal setup for a kosher family. If not, one set of dishes must be washed; the water emptied and sink scrubbed before the other set can be cleaned. Dishes and utensils must be dried using separate racks or dishtowels.
There are many other rules to be followed for anything to be considered kosher food. Suffice it to say that if one is purchasing prepared food, one must examine the packaging to be sure the food is labeled kosher. If the package says ‘’kosher style’’ it does not mean it is kosher. Only a kosher symbol (stamp) indicates strict supervision of the kosher product, such as OU, OK, Star K etc.
Kosher food has a strong positive effect on the mental, physical and spiritual wellbeing of a person. Kosher food makes the mind and heart pure and focused.



By: Rabbi Yaakov Luban

The Hebrew word kosher means fit or proper as it relates to kosher dietary law. Kosher foods are permitted to be eaten, and can be used as ingredients in the production of additional food items.
The basic laws of Kashrus (a Hebrew word referring to kosher and its application) are of Biblical origin (Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 17). For thousands of years, Rabbinic scholars have interpreted these laws and applied them to contemporary situations. In addition, Rabbinic bodies enacted protective legislation to safeguard the integrity of kosher laws.
The laws of kashrus are complex and extensive. The intention of this guide is to acquaint the reader with some of the fundamentals of kashrus and provide insight into its practical application. Given the complex nature of the laws of kashrus, one should consult an Orthodox Rabbi whenever a kashrus issue arises.
Though an ancillary hygienic benefit has been attributed to the observance of kashrus, the ultimate purpose and rationale is to conform to the Divine Will, as expressed in the Torah.
Not too long ago, most food products were made in the family kitchen, or in a small factory or store in the local community. It was relatively easy to ascertain if the product was reliably kosher. If Rabbinical supervision was required, it was attended to by the rabbi of the community, who was known to all. Today, industrialization, transcontinental shipping and mass production have created a situation where most of the foods we eat are treated, processed, cooked, canned or boxed commercially in industrial settings, which can be located hundreds or thousands of miles away from home.
What adds further complication is that it is generally not possible to judge the kosher status of an item on the basis of the information provided in the ingredient declaration for a variety of reasons.
First, the product may be made from kosher ingredients, but processed on non-kosher equipment. Second, the USDA does not require the listing of certain processing aids, such as pan liners and oils that serve as release agents. Though not legally classified as ingredients, these items could nonetheless render the product non-kosher. Third, many ingredients can be kosher or non-kosher, depending on their source of origin. For example, glycerin and emulsifiers are made from either vegetable or animal oils. Finally, many ingredients are listed only in broad terms, with no breakdown of the many complex components that make up the actual item. For example, a chocolate flavor may contain 50 ingredients, but the ingredient declaration will list this entire complex of ingredients as “flavors”.
Unless a person is an expert in food production, the average consumer cannot possibly make an evaluation of the kosher status, which is why it is important to purchase only those products that have the endorsement of a reliable kosher agency.